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Full text of "Outlines of Irish grammar : for the use of schools and Gaelic League classes"

H 



PB 

1223 

088 

1905 

pt.1 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/outlinesofirishgOOgael 



OUTLINES 



OF 



IRISH GRAMMAR 



FOR THE USE OF 



SCHOOLS AND GAELIC LEAGUE CLASSES 



PART I.— ACCIDENCE 



Compiled for the Limerick Branch of the 
Gaelic League, 

1GB L1BRABT 



BQSi~~ • MASS, 

CHESTNUT HILL. MA 

Dublin : 
M. H. GILL & SON, 50 UPPER O'CONNELL STREET 



1005. 






V 

*6 



$k 



eJsX.I&X-ZKs 



An ctó-ctim^nn, zeoy&vz&, 



*\s>C^K€y» 



CONTENTS. 









PA'VE 


Aspiration 


• • 


. 


5 


Eclipsis 


. . 




6 


Gender 






7 


Article 


• • 


• 


8 


First Declension 




. . 


9 


Second Declension 




. 


IO 


Third and Fourth Decle 


MSIONS 


, 


ii 


Fifth Declension 




. 


12 


Irregular Nouns 




• 


13 


Adjectives 




. 


14 


Irregular Adjectives 




. 


16 


Numerals 


• 


. 


17 


Pronouns 


. 


. . 


18 


Prepositional Pronouns 


« 


. , 


19 


The Verb 


. 


• • 


20 


First Conjugation 




• 


22 


Second Conjugation 


■ 


• i 


23 


Irregular Verbs 






24 


Adverbs 




-. 


34 


Prepositions 




. 


35 


Conjunctions 




. 


36 



OUTLINES OF IRISH GRAMMAR. 

PART I.— ACCIDEMGE. 



ASPIRATION. 
Aspiration is the modifying or softening of the 
sound of a consonant. In producing the aspirated 
sound the organs of speech are not brought into 
such close contact as that required for the un- 
aspirated sound. 

t), c, X), p, 5, tn, p, f and u are the aspirable 
consonants. 

Rules for Aspiration of Initial Consonants. 

I. The Article An aspirates nouns (except those 
beginning with X), z or p) in the Nom. and Ace. 
Fern. Sing., and Gen. Masc. Sing. : e.g., án bó. 
U14C An tAp&Ml- 

II. Compound Words have the initial consonant 
of the second word aspirated : e.g., p&Ati-beAti. Ex- 
ception — When the second word begins with x> or c, 
and the first word ends in any of the letters -o, n, c, 

III. The Possessive Adjective Pronouns mo, my ; 
x>o, thy; a, his, aspirate the noun that follows : e.g., 
mo c^p Alt. 

IV. Adjectives are aspirated in the Nom. Sing. 
Fern., and Gen. Sing. Masc. and Dat. and Voc. Sing, 
of both genders (and in Nom. Plur. when the accom- 
panying noun ends in a slender consonant) : e.g., 
be^n mop ; ce^c An £if\ moif\. 

Note to Rule I. — Words beginning with f , followed by a vowe 
or t, r>, ft /'_.. have c prefixed in Nom. and Ace. Fern. Sing, and in 
Gen. Masc. Sing. 



V. Simple Prepositions, except 5411, 45, Ay, te, 1 
and 50, aspirate the noun that follows: e.g., a\k cnoc ; 
'oo pÁT> \W£. 

VI. The Interjection 4 aspirates in the Vocative 
case nouns Masc. and Fern., Sing, and Plur. : e.g., 
a pj\ ; a rhtu\. 

VII. A Noun in Gen. Sing, or Gen. Plur. preceded 
by another noun and not limited by the Article or 
Possessive Adj. Pron. or such word, is aspirated: e.g., 
cíof\ rhe At a. 

VIII. Verbs are aspirated in the Imperfect, Per- 
fect, and Conditional tenses of the Active Voice. 
They are also aspirated after nt, not; tru\ if; mA\\, 
as ; f ut, before ; and after the relative particle a. 
X)a } the past and the conditional tense of if, generally 
aspirates the word that follows : e.g., X)a óóija mile. 



ECLIPSIS. 

Eclipsis is the suppression of the sound of a con- 
sonant caused by prefixing another whose sound is 
substituted. 

The following are eclipsable : — I), c, -o, p, 5, p, 
and c. Each of these consonants has an eclipsing 
letter : 

m eclipses b, as a rnbÁt) (maudh) their boat. 

a 5C4pAll (gopull), their horse. 
a rmún (noon), their fort. 
a bveAft (vaer), their hay. 
a ngé (ngay\ their goose. 
a bpócA (boka), their pocket. 
a -ouAob (dhay-ov), their side. 

Rales for Eclipsis 

The initial consonants are eclipsed as follows : — 
I. Nouns after Á\\, our ; t)u\\, your ; a, their : as Á\\ 
•ocíf, otifv n$é. 



5 


11 


C 


n 


>) 


T) 


b 


ji 


V 


n 


»1 


5 


b 


»j 


P 


•0 


jj 


u 



II. Nouns after the article in Gen. PI. Masc. and 
Fern., as nA rnbo, of the cows. 

III. Nouns in the Sing, after simple prepositions 
and the article, as a\\ An gcnoc, j?é'n tnbójvo, &c. 
The adjective (and the noun following *oe or *oo) 
may be eclipsed or aspirated in this case, as ó'n 
gc^pAll m\jÁY), or ó'n gc^páti 'óán. 

IV. Nouns after fe^cc, occ, uaoi, T>eic, as fe^cc 

V. Verbs after **n, cá, tiac, 50, tnutu, x)a, á (rel.) 
preceded by a preposition, as An 4 ópinL fé? An zé as 
a t>p tnl, &c. 

RsiSes for Insertion of n, c and h. 

I. Prepositions with final vowels, except *oo and 
*oe, prefix n to a, his, a, her, a } their, and Á\\ , our : e.g., 
te n-A itiAC 

II. tl is prefixed to nouns beginning with vowels 
in those circumstances in which a consonant would 
suffer eclipsis : e.g., An n-AfÁl. 

III. The article prefixes c to the Norn, and Ace. 
Sing, of Masc, nouns beginning with vowels; e.g., 
An iz-AonAc. [See note to Rule II., Aspiration] 

IV. The following w r ords which neither aspirate 
nor eclipse, prefix n to words beginning with a vowel: 
n^ the, in Gen. Sing. Fern., and Norn., Ace. and 
Dat. Plural ; a, her ; te, 50, -oa\\a, second ; uf\í, f é, 
six, and the ordinals ending in rhAt>. 



GENDER, 



There are only two genders — the Masculine and 
Feminine. 

Masculines are — (1) Names and designations of 
males. (2) Nouns ending in one or two broad con- 
sonants, as Uu\c, c\\Ain, except those ending in acz 
and 05. (3) Personal agents in óitv^xifve^-Ai-óe, 01 úe. 



tn-óe or aó. (4) Diminutives in áv, and in, and 
abstracts in Af. (5) The titles of callings, &c, 
peculiar to men, as bÁ|\x>, gaba. 

Feminines are — (1) Names and designations of 
females. (2) Names of countries, rivers, and most 
of the members of the body, as éife, Sitiip, cop, 
ftfit, &c. (3) Diminutives in 05, and derivatives in 
Atz\ also abstract nouns from the Gen. Fern, of 
adjectives. (4) Nouns ending in one or two slender 
consonants, except those in ói|\, and males, as At-Aifi, 
also the words -oranm, Ainm, s^eim, and poctóift. 

Attenuation is the process by which a broad 
consonant is made slender., as bAro from tu\T). 

Broadening, the reverse of attenuation, is the 
process by w T hich a slender consonant is made broad, 
as roóru\ from morn, bii^Uvo from biiAit. 

Syncopation is the elision of an unaccented 
vowel or diphthong occurring in the last syllable of 
words of two or more syllables when the words are 
lengthened by an inflection beginning with a vowel, 
as oibj\e from obaif, otn-a from oldnn. 



THE ARTICLE. 

There is only one article in Irish, the definite 
article an. In the Singular number, all the cases are 
an, except the Gen. Fern., which is na. The Plural 
is always n-d. 



THE NOUN. 

Cases. — There are five cases in Irish : Nominative, 
Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Vocative. The 
Norn, answers to the English Norn. ; the Gen. to the 
Possessive ; the Dat. to the case governed by a 
preposition ; the Ace. is the case governed by a 
transitive verb ; and the Voc. is the case of address. 



Declensions. — There are five declensions. The 
way in which the Gen. is formed from the Nom, 
determines the declensions. 

Formation of Cases — (i) Nom. and Ace. are 
always the same in form. (2) Nom. and Voc. Sing. 
are always the same, except in the first declension, 
where the Voc. is the same as the Gen. Sing. (3) 
Dat. Sing, is usually like the Nom. Sing., except in 
the fifth declension ; and in the second declension (in 
the case of nouns ending in a broad consonant). 
(4) Gen. Plur. is usually like the Nom. Sing,, in first, 
second and third declensions. 

The First Declension. 

All nouns of this declension end in broad con- 
sonants, and are Masculine. The Gen. Sing, is 
formed by attenuation. The Nom, Plur. is generally 
like the Gen. Sing., and the Gen. Plur. lik*- the Nom. 
Sing. The Dat. Plur. is formed by adding ^10 to the 
Nom, Sing. 

EXAMPLES. 

CxMTlAn, a hurley, m. m<me<dC, a horseman, m. 

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. Ace. cAmÁn cam am \ Nom. Ace. maftcaé mancais 

Gen. Ám Án j Gen. A15 ac 

Dat. Án Ánatft j Dat. ac acaib 

'Voc. a camÁm a cam-ana | Voc a rha-pcai5 a majtcaca 

Note. — Words of more than one syllable ending in ac end when 
attenuated in A13 ; endings in eac become 15. Monosyllables 
ending in 6 are regular. 

irregularities in First Declension. 

I. ea, eu, or ia in Nom. Sing, becomes éi in Gen. Sing. 
o (short) „ „ „ ,. -m „ „ 

ea or 10 „ ,, ,, ,, 1 „ ,, „ 

ea in Nom. Sing, sometimes becomes ei in Gen. Sing. 

II. The Nom. Plurals of the following nouns add a : — bjmac, a 
brink; caoji, a berry: cheaf skin; -oeoft, a tear; ptae, a debt; 
peann, a pen ; reóx), a jewel ; pmeujt, a blackberr 

III. The Nom. Plurals oi the following nouns add e and make 
certain changes : — Am^eal, an angal ; aonac, a fair ; bóta|t, a 



10 

road"; -oofiáf, a door; éi^&Af, a learned man : mA-pgAo, a market 
Their plurals are — Ain^te, AonAije (-uAije), bóitjie, T>oi-f\fe, éi$f e, 
mAft^Ai-óe. 

IV. Nom. Plurals formed by adding cd : — Ceol. music ; chah, a 
harbour ; -oún, a fort ; netil, a cloud ; fjetil, a story : reot, a sail. 

V. Gen Sing, of triAc, a son, is true ; of biA-o, food, bí-ó. 

The Second Declension. 

All nouns of this declension end in either broad or 
slender consonants, and are Feminine. The Gen. 
Sing, of those ending in broad consonants is formed 
by attenuating the Nom. and then adding e. The 
Gen. of those ending in slender consonants is formed 
by adding e to the Nom. The Dat Sing, drops the 
increase of the Gen. The Voc. ends like the Nom. 
The Nom. Plur. is formed from the Nom. Sing, by 
adding a when the last vowel is broad, and e when it 
is slender. The Gen, Plur. ends like the Nom. Sing. 







EXAM 


PLES. 








bnóg, a shoe, 


/. 




cmnu, a harp, 


f. 




Sing. 


PI. 




Sing. 


PL 


Nom 


& Ace. bj\ó$ 


bftósA 


Nom. 


& Ace. cf.uir 


cf.ture 


Gen. 


bfióise 


b|tós 


Gen. 


cfttnce 


cpwc 


Dat. 


bftóts 


bfi©5Aib 


Dat. 


cjunr 


cjitnuib 


Voc. 


A t)ftÓ3 


A b^O^A 


Voc. 


A CfttHU 


a cjtuiue 



Note. — "Words of more than one syllable ending in ac change in 
Gen. Sing, to Aij;e : ending in eAC they become ije: e.g., ctÁitir-eAc, 
ct^i|tf i^e. Monosyllables ending in c are regular. 

Irregularities in Second Declension 

I. eu or ia in Nom. Sing, becomes éi in Gen. Sing. 

to »j ti a j) 1 ;? >i j) 

II. The following words add eAnriA to form Nom. Plur. : — t>éim, 
a blow; céim, a step: cvh-p, a cause: t>eit, a lathe; -o-UAif, a 
prize; feif, festival; fv?Aim, a sound; £liiAif, a contrivance; 
téim, a leap; Unb, a herb; pÁiftc, a field; ftéun, a course; r-[iÁi"ó 
a street ; 1*301 1, a school. 

III. The following add eACA to form Nom. Plur.: — Aici-o, a 
disease; ciúrriAif, an edge: tiuiji, a letter (ticfie and tirjieACA 
OJ1Á1-D, an oration: pAi-oi-p, a prayer (pAit)fieACA) ; c-jiuaiVI, a 
sheathe ; ub, an egg (tube and uibeACA 



II 

Third Declension. 

All the nouns of this declension end in a con- 
sonant in the Norn. Sing. The Gen. Sing, is formed 
by adding a to the Norn. 

To this declension belong — (i) All abstract nouns 
in act: (all Feminine). (2) All personal nouns in oi|\ 
(all Masculine). (3) Verbal nouns in ^cu and ^rh>áin. 
(4) Other nouns ending in consonants (those ending 
in broad consonants being Masc, those in slender 
consonants Fern ) 

The Norn. Plur. is generally similar in form to the 
Gen. Sing. 

Personal nouns in oifi add 1 (róe) to Norn. Sing, to 
form Norn. Plur. 





EXAMPLES. 


CtCAS, a trick, m 


Cdmceóm, a talker. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


Sing, Plur. 


N. & A. clear 


clear a 


N. & A. catnceóiji camreóijr (ix>e) 


Gen. clear a 


clear 


Gen. cainceófta cainreói]i 


Dat. clear 


clearaib 


Dat. cainueóiji cainueói-pib 


Voc. a clear 


a cle^r a 


Voc. a cainueóijt a camceóijií (i*óe) 



When a is added to the Nom. Sing, of a word ending in a slender 
consonant to form the Gen. Sing, a change takes place before the 
consonant : e.g., uoil, Gen. rota ; r^áij, Gen. z-\\Á ja. 

Irregularities in Third Declension, 

I. 1 or 10 in Nom. Sing, becomes ea in Gen. Sing, 
u or ui „ „ ,, „ o „ „ 

Ii. The following nouns form the Nom. Plur. by adding nn a to 
the Gen. Sing.: — Clear, a trick; ciot (cit), a shower; *oat, a 
colour; -ofuum, a back; jut, a vo^ce ; $jteim, a morsel ; fftut, a 
stream. 

III. Some nouns ending in I or n form the Nom. Plur. b\r adding 
ra or ce : e.g., móm, a bog, Nom. Plur. móirre; ráin, a drove 
Nom. PI. cáitrce. 

The Fourth Declension. 

To this declension belong — (1) diminutives in in 
(all Masc.) ; (2) abstract nouns formed from the Gen. 
Sing. Fern, of adjectives (all Fern.) ; (3) personal 



12 

nouns in xM'óe, -dige, tn-óe, and xMfie ; (4) many other 
nouns ending in vowels, 

All the cases are alike in the Singular. 

The Nom. Plur. is generally formed by adding í 
(me) to the Sing. 

The Gen. Plur. is the same as the Nom. Plur. 

EXAMPLES. 

C-Aipín, a cap, m. Cl^e^tind, a lord, m. 

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. 

N. & A. cAiphi cAipítií (t*óe) N. & A. -ajjeAfmA ciJeAfinAÍ (i"óe) 

Gen. cAipín CAipín Gen. riJeA-finA cigeAjtnAÍ (í-óe) 

Dat. cAipín cAipírnb Dat. nijeAtuiA uiijeAfiiiAíb (ix>íb) 

Voe. a cAipííi a cAipíní (i*óe) Voc. Á tijeAjtHA a tige^jitiAÍ (i^e) 

irregularities in Fourth Declension 

I. The following form the Nom» Plur. by omitting the final e and 
adding ze : — t)Aite, a town ; ctnnne, a corner ; téine, a shirt ; mite, 
a mile, a thousand • rnihtte, a mule; rlomne, a surname. 

II. Nouns ending in -óe or je add te to form the Nom. Plur. : 
e.g., cf»oix>e, Nom. Plur. ciioiT>te. The following also add te : — 
Caoi, a way; -oaoi, a dunce; -of.AOi, a druid ; "oíaoi, a lock of 
hair; f aqi, a wise man. 

III. *Otnne, a person, has Nom. Plur. ■oAome ; $no, work, ^nótA ; 
ni-o, a thing, neire. 

The Fifth Declension. 

The nouns of this declension generally end in a 
vowel, and are Fern, as a rule. 

The Gen. Sing, is formed by adding a broad con- 
sonant (11 or c being the consonant usually added) 
to the Nom. Sing. 

The Dat. Sing, is formed by attenuating the Gen, 
Sing. 

The Xom. Plur, adds a to the Gen. Sing. 

The Gen. Plur. is the same as Gen. Sing, 

EXAMPLES. 

pe-ARS^,' a person, /. tins A, a door-post, /. 

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. 

N. & A. ^QAffA peAflfAtlA I N. & A. Vift-pA U-flfAtJA 

Gen. peAjifAti peAi-ifAii ! Gen. ufir-An vs-prAti 

Dat. peAfifAin peAjifAtiAib j Dat. -u-pfAin ujir-AnAib 

VOC. A pbAjlf A A peAjlf ATI A VOC. A UflfA A UflfAttA 



13 

Irregularities in Fifth Declension. 

I. Some nouns form their Nom. Plur. by adding e to the Gen. 
Sing, and syncopating : e.g., AbA, a river, Nom. Plur. Aibne; jado, 
a smith, jAibne ; ca-|ia, a friend, cÁi-pvoe ; nÁmA, an enemy, riÁirrme. 

II. Some nouns form the'r Nom. Plur. by attenuating the Gen, 
Sing. : e.g., cAOftd, a sheep, Nom. Plur. cAomi § ; cú, a hound, coin : 
comujir-A, a neighbour, cornujirAm ; íaca, a duck, lACAm. 

III. To this declension belong, (i) the nouns (used only in the 
Plural), SAcr-AtiA, England; ConnACUA, Onnaughtj ÍAi^m, 
Leinster, and uIa-o. Ulster; and (2) the nouns éipie, Ireland; 
Aloa, Scotland: murriA, Munster, and CeAnuvi-p, Tara. 



N., A.,V 


Gen. Dat 




N..A..V. 


Gen. Dat. 


SACTArfA 


SACfAU SACfAn 


Aib 


éifíe 


6i]ieAnn éijimn 


ConnAcu<i 


k ConnAci; ConnACUAib 


AVoa 


xVlbAn -AlbAm 


ÍAiJm 


lAijeAti tAijmb 


tTinmA 


mum Ail tTlumAin 


ULai-ó 


UIax) VituAib 




CeAmAi-ji 


CeAm-|iAC CeAmjíAi 




irregular Nouns. 






N., Ace. 


Gen. 


Dat. 


I. Sing. 


cú, a hound 


con 


com 


Plur. 


com (cum, coha) 


con 


conAib 


2. Sing. 


beAn, a woman 


mnÁ 


mnAoi 


Plur. 


mtiÁ 


bAn 


mnÁib 


3. Sing. 


b|tu, a womb 


bjtonn (bjtvnnrie) bjtomri 


Plur. 


b-ponnA 


bftonn 


bjionr.Aib 


4. Sing. 


reAc(ci5),ahouse 


ci^e 


reAc (cij) 


Plur. 


njue 


n^te (ceAc) 


ui^tib 


5- Sing. 


fii, a king 


tn'05 


1«3 


Plur. 


■ni^te 


fii^te 


jnjúib 


6. Sing. 


aúai|i, a father 


AtAjl 


AÚAIft 


Plur. 


Ait|te (Aiúí.eACA) 


A\±\\ eAC (a) 


Ait-peACAib 


7. Sing. 


tÁ, a day 


lA8 


IÁ, ló 


Plur. 


ÍAete(Anuó) 


ÍAeúeA-ó (IÁ) 


ÍAetib 


8. Sing. 


bó, a cow 


bó 


bum 


Plui. 


bA 


bó 


btJAib 


9. Sing. 


ceó, a mist 


cíac (ceó?t) 


ceó 


Plur. 


cía-ó (eeócA) 


ceó 


ceócAib 


10. Sing. 


mi, a month 


míf (míofA) 


mí (míf) 


Plur. 


mi of a 


míof 


míopAib 


11. Sing. 


T)ia, God 


*Oé 


T)1A 


Plur. 


*Oée (T)eite) 


*OlA 


•Oéib (tib) 


12. Sing. 


ftiAb, a mountain 


pléibe 


rtéib (ptu-vb) 


Plur. 


ftéibue 


rléit 


}ue 


fléibnb 



mÁtAi-p;, bf ÁtAi|i and T)eA-p.bfiÁtAi-p; are declined like aúaiji. 
Gen. of pú-fi is fe-AÚAji ; Gen. of -oei-nbfiúft is -oeiftbfeAÚAji 



14 
THE ADJECTIVE. 

Adjectives are inflected somewhat in the same 
way as nouns. The Dat. Plur of adjectives, unlike 
that of nouns, is always the same as the Norn. Plur. 

First Declension. 

This declension includes all adjectives ending 
in a broad consonant. Adjectives of this declension 
agreeing with Masc. nouns are declined in the Sing, 
like nouns of the First declension. If they agree 
with Fern, nouns they are declined like nouns of the 
Second declension. The Nom. Plur. (both Masc. 
and Fern.) is formed by adding a to the Nom. Sing. 
All the cases (both Masc. and Fern.) are the same, 
except the Gen. The Gen. Plur. is the same as the 
Nom. Sing. 









EXAMPLES. 










in on 


, big. 






&05, 


soft. 






Singular 


Plur. 




Singular 


Plur. 




m. 


/■ 


m.& f. 




m, 


/• 


m, & f. 


N.& A. 


móft 


móft 


móftA 


N. & A. 


bo 5 


005 


bo^A 


Gen. 


móifi 


móijie 


móji 


Gen. 


bui 5 


btnje 


bos 


Dat. 


móft 


móijt 


móftA 


Dat. 


D05 


bui 5 


bO£A 


Voc. 


tnóiji 


móji 


mójiA 


Voc. 


buis 


bos 


bO£A 



Vowel changes similar to those which take place in the formation 
of the Genitives of nouns occur in forming the Genitives of 
adjectives, e.g. : bo$, bm^ ; r-eajib, feiftb, &c. 

Second Declension. 

This declension includes all adjectives ending in a 
slender consonant (those in ^rh^il being excepted). 

All the cases of the Sing, (both Masc. and Fern.) 
are alike, except the Gen. Fern., which is formed by 
adding e. 

All the cases of the Plur. (both Masc. and Fern.) 
are^alike, except the Gen., which is the same as the 
Nom. Sing. The other Plur. cases are formed by 
adding e to the Sing. 



15 





EXAMPLE. 






bltir, melodious. 






Singular 


Plural 




m. 


A 


m. & f. 


Nom 


. & Ace. binn 


bmn 


bmne 


Gen. 


binn 


binne 


binn 


D*t. 


bmn 


binn 


bmne 


Voc 


bmn 


binn 


binne 



Third Declension. 

This declension includes all adjectives ending in 
^rhvAit. There is no change for gender. 

All the cases are alike in the Sing., except the 
Gen., which is formed by adding a with syncopation. 

All the cases are alike in the Plur., except the 
Gen., which is like the Nom. Sing. 

EXAMPLE. 

pe^tl-ArhxMt, manly. 
Sing. — Nom., Ace, Dat, Voc. peAji attiaiI; Gen. peAjiArnta 
Plur. „ ,, ,, „ peAfiAtnlA ; ,, peAf.AthAit 

Fourth Declension. 

All the adjectives of this declension end in a vowel. 
All the cases, Sing, and Plur. (Masc. and Fern.), are 
the same : e.g., pvo^, long ; ^of za, old. Two excep- 
tions : ce, hot, becomes ceo in Gen. Fern. Sing., and 
in the Plur. (Masc, and Fern.) ; beo, living, becomes 
beo"óx\ in the Plur. 

Articles and Adjectives Declined with Noun. 
AV\ peAtt pionn, the fair (haired) man. 
Sing. Plur. 

N. & Ace. An peA-pi -pionn nA J p^\\ ponnA 

Gen. An -pi|t -pnn n<\ bpeAyi bpionn 

Dat. ó'n bpeAfi pionn ó n^ peAfiAib pionnA 

Voc. a fin" fmn a peAftA pionnA 

An X)eAVi t)e^^, the small woman. 
Sing. Plur. 

N. & Ace. An Ibe&n beA$ tiA mnÁ beA$A 

Gen. nA mnÁ bi$e tiA mbAn rnbeAs 

Dat ó'n mnAoi bij ó nA mnÁib beA^A 

Voc. a beAn be&$ a riinÁ beA^A 



i6 
Comparison of Adjectives. 

There are three degrees of comparison : (i) The 
Positive, as ban, white ; ájvo, high ; T)ub, black, 
(2 and 3) The Comparative and Superlative, which 
have the same form — that of the Gen. Fern.. Sing., 
and are distinguished by the particles niof for the 
Comparative, and if for the Superlative, as : 

Pos. Comp. Super. 

Á-jro níor Áifvoe if ÁijtT)e (aoifvoe) 

bÁn níof bÁme if bÁme 

There is a comparison of equality formed by 
putting óorh before the Positive and te or teif after 
it, as cotfi X)Ár\ te n-e-aLa, óorh geal teif An ngjiem. 

If a verb occurs in the last part of the sentence, 
>c\f Uguf ) takes the place of te or teif ; as ni pint f é 
óorh r\dit)bif\ Af bí fé. 

Whenever the verb in the comparative sentence is 
in the past, niop of the present tense becomes nró ba 
as bí SeA%Án nrú b'fe^ff mtDe, John was better 
yesterday. 

When the conditional mood is used in the first 
part of the sentence we must employ bd, the condi- 
tional of if , before the adjective ; e.g.. "oubAific pé 50 
■ociubfuvó fé ^n tuac b^ rhó An An gcdpAtt, he said 
that he would give the highest price for the horse. 

Irregular Comparison. 

Pos. Comp. & Superl.! Pos. Cornp. & Superl. 

beAc, sruall tuijA | lontriu in, beloved lonirmme (-an tir-a) 

Pa-oa, long f Ai*oe (fwoe), fiAj otc, bad rneAp^ 

pvj-ptjf(A), tifitif, easy ptifA, up^ ^05«^, near foijr e (p oip^e) 

mofi, great ; big mó Cftéian, brave uftéitie (r-peipe) 

mAit, good - peÁfifi (*oeAc) (TIU15), near neAp^ 

mime, frequent rmoncA (mimce) (l-u^ú), early r:vnp5e(c40ip5<.>) 

SeApift, short 5 1 0juia (5if| te) ; ^t 1 " - n *8'k Áifvoe (AÓijvoe) 

iom-Ó4 ; many mó ;Iia) ' ce, hot ceó 

■0015, probable -ooi^ce 





17 








NUMERALS. 






CARDINAL 


ORDINAL. 


PERSONAL. 


I Aon 


i st ceux>, AontiiAX) 


AOHAf 


03" 


2 "OÓ, TK\ 


2nd •OA\\&, "OOrilAX) 


[X)íf ("OÍAf )] 


"Ei 






bei-pr 


G 

. 


3 cr» 


3rd CfteAf CfíOTTlA-Ó 


CflÚf 





4 ce<\ÚAji, ceitfie 


4th CeAUfUMTIAT) 


CeAtflAJt 


J- 


5 CÚ15 


5th cui5e<\-6 (itiat>) 


ctnseAji 


*cS 2 


6 f é 


6th feifeax) (férriAT)) 


feifeAf 





7 pe-Acc 


7th feACCTTIAT) 


feACCA|l 


Bl 


8 occ 




rnó-p feifeAf 




8th OCCTTIAT) 


ocrA-ji 


G* 0" 
O 03 


9 ViAOl 


9th nAOTTlAT) 


tMonoAft 


co s-< 

5r! rG 


10 x>eic 


10th -oeACTriAX), -oeic- 


■oeicneAOAfi 


a- 




e-A-o 




03 


1 1 Aon--oé^5 


nth AonniAX)-"oéA5 




G 
O 


12 T)ó--óéA5 

20 pee 

21 Aon if pice 


I2th , OAJlA- , oéA5 

20th piceAX) 

21st AonrriAX) Aft picix) 


•OÁ fieAj 




T3 C *0 
G . « p 


G 
O 


,, Aon aji ficix) 




G <5 


<t 


30 x>eic if fice 


30th -OeACiTlA-O Af 


P O $_ 


>> 


,, UfllOCA 


flClX) 


* c « 


*G 


31 Aon--oéA5 if pice 


31st AonniA-ó x>éA5 a^ 


3 03 P 


O 
O 




f1C1T) 




40 T)Á f1C1T) 
,, CeAtflACA 


40th X)Á f 1C1"OeAX) 


G £ P 
3 '?'? . 


O 

03 
G 


„ -OACA"0 




G ^ 


O 


50 *oeic if t>Á pci*o 


50th -OeACTTIA-6 Af -ÓÁ 


G 


(■OACAT)) 

„ CA05A 


f1C1X) 


<5 






■a •-•= 


»b 


60 Cflí f1C1T) 


60th c|tí f ici-oeAX) 


I 81. 




„ r eA rs^ 




2 St 



< 


70 x>eic if c^í f 1C1T) 


70th ■OeACTTIA'Ó Afl tf Í 


H -mo 


*£ 


„ feAcumo^A 


f1C1X) 




c ° 
" 


80 ceitfte ficix) 


80th ceitf e ficix)eA-ó 


< «CO 


G ^ 
■C G 
«5 c3 


,, ocuttioJa 




•P 2; G 
^ 6 


S G 






0) GO) 

O gX3 

T3 © «Ó to 


G 03 


90 x>eic if ceicjtepci-o 


90th "oeActriA-o A|i 


3 s 


,, V)OCA 

100 coat) (ceu-o) 


ceitfte ficix) 
1 ooth céA-oA-ó 


< 


03 "J 

G O 


1,000 mite 


1,000th míleA-ó 


1,000,000 mittiúti 


1, ooo ; oooth miLtiúruvó 


«o 



iS 

PRONOUNS. 

There are six kinds of pronouns : — Personal, 
Possessive, Relative, Demonstrative, Interrogative, 
Indefinite. There are four Personal Pronouns : 
me, c«, ré, p, with their plurals, pnti, po, ruvo. 
These have emphatic forms: mife, cufA, peifeAti, 
pf e ; pnne, r io T e J p^vorAn. A more emphatic form 
is mé pew, c« pern, &c 

The Possessive (Adjective) Pronouns are : mo, 
my; -oo, thy; a, his, her, or their; Áfi, our; (Hip, 
your. Áf moo, or S\\ mbó-ne, our cow. 

The Relative Pronouns are : a, who, which, or 
what, all who, all that ; ru\c, who, which, which not ; 
50, who, which, or what. There are also the Com- 
pound Relatives; pé, gibe, cibé, who, whoever, 
whichever, whatever. 

The Demonstratives are: po (feo), this, these; 
fAti or j\Mn l/pn). that, those; pú*q (put)), those 

yonder. All these forms, except pro (put)), are 

also used as adjectives, ti-o, that, those, yonder, is 
used only as an adjective. 

The Interrogatives are : cia or cé, who ; cS, 
what, where ; c^t) or cf etn (cétifvo), what. 

The Indefinites are: c^c, all, everyone; 5^0, 
each, every; gAé uite, every, all; ce^cu^f. either; 
ttite, all; a ceile, one another ; An ué (ci), he who : 
ciA b'é, cit>é, 5it)é, whoever. Aon, one, any; 615111, 
some, certain ; eite, other, are used as Indefinite 
Adjectives. 



19 



Prepositional Pronouns. 



A£, at, with 


: AS. out of T)0, to 


te, with 




Sing. 


Sing. Sing. 


Sing. 




A^Atn, at me 


Af Am 


•oom, -oAm 


Liom 


| me 


a^az, at thee 


AfAU 


■owe 


leAc 


: thee 


Ai5e, &c. 


AV , 


■do 


teir 


him 


aici (e) 


Aifci (ce) 


"OÍ 


Léi (léiti) 


her 


Plu 


Plur. 


Plur. 


Plur. 




Az^inn, at us 


AfAinn -oúmn 


Linn 


us 


4341b, &c. 


I AfAlb i T'íb (-OAOlb) 


lib 


you 


aca(u) 


AruA -oóib 


leó (leobtA) 


tnem 


Ail (Am), on 


cum, toward; 1*0111, between 


Ó, u A, from 


i 


Sing. 


Sing. Sing. 


Sing. 




Oftm 


cu^Am eA"0|iAm 


«Aim 


me 


Oflt 


cii^au i eA-o|tAC 


1JA1C 


thee 


A1|1 


cui^e J i-oijt (é) 


UA1T) 


him 


«Ittjll(tl) 


CU1C1 ! 1T>l|t (Í) 


n ai Ú1 


her 


Piur, 


Plur. Plur. 


Plur. 




ojiftAinn 


cugAinn eAt)|tAinn 


UAinn 


us 


OJtftAlb 


cu^Aib ; eA"ojtAib 


«Aib 


you 


OftjtA ft a) 


cúca (u) : eArojtjtA 


UAÚA 


them 




(eA-o-jiA) 






Arm, 1, in 


■ne, from, off t?4 t % é, under 


uoirh, before 




Sing. 


Sing 


Sing. 


9 Sing. 


I 


ion 11 Am 


■oiom 


fúm 


noriiAm 


me 


ionnAU 


■oiou 


Tpúz 


jtoriiAr 


thee 


Ann 


■oe 


KAOi (fé) 


|toime 


him 


mnn (re) 


■01 


jrúiti 


jtoimpi 


her 


Plur. 


Plur. 


Plur, 


Plur. 




lonnAinn 


x>inn 


pnifin 


•nómAinn 


us 


lonnAib 


■oib 


púi5 


jióiriAib 


you 


ionnuA 


■oiob 


f ÚÚA 


-jiómpA 


them 


se-AC, beside 


CAR, beyond 


CRé, through 


um, 1 in, about 




Sing. 


Sing". 


Sing. 


Sing. 




feACAm 


ÚAjim (0) 


Uftíom 


vimAm 


me 


feACAU 


UAJ1U ,, | unioc 


umAc 


thee 


r-eAC é. 


tA1|t1f „ upi-o 


uime 


him 


f eAc í 


tAi|tfci (tip)! rm'ti (te) 


uimpi (pe) 


her 


Plur. 


Plur. Plur. 


Plur. 




feACAinn 


tAfiAmn (0) ! ujtinn 


anr&imi 


us 


peACAib 


CAjtAlb C|tÍD 


wmAib 


you 


^eACA 


tAnfCA (|tf A) 


UjllOCA 


umpA 


them ; 



20 

Prepositional Possessives. 

i, in, Ann, in te, with ó, from 

• fim, Am, 'mo, in my tern, with my órn, from my 

.g Kn), xvo, 'do, in thy te*o, with thy ó-o, from thy 

^ (inA, 'riA, in his, her te ti-a, with his ó n-A, from'his, her 

with her 

our te tiÁfi, with our ó riÁft, from our 

in your te nbúft, with your ó noújt, from y^ur 

their te r>A, with their <5 tia, from their 



^ ínÁfi, itiÁft, in o 
^ «Jnbvifi, 1 nbúji, i 
•? (r»A, itiA, in thei 



Other simple prepositions are similarly treated, 



THE VERB. 

There are two conjugations in Irish. The first 
conjugation embraces the majority of Irish verbs 
The second conjugation comprises (i) verbs ending 
in i£ and tug, and (2) Syncopated verbs. 

Each of the conjugations has three forms — (1) the 
Synthetic, (2) the Analytic, and (3) the Autonomous. 

The Synthetic form is that in which the persons 
are expressed by inflections. 

In the Analytic there is only one form for the 
different persons. 

The Autonomous form is used when an action is 
spoken of without express mention of the subject, 
e.g. — 5tAncx\fi An bójvo, someone cleans the table. 
It is usually neither eclipsed nor aspirated. 

Synthetic Form Pres. Indic. — tnoU\nn, moU\ip, 
moLann fé, mot4imAOi*o, &c. 

Analytic Form of Pres. Indic. — moUnn me, 
tnoLann cú, moU\nn pé, mot<\nn fmn, &c. 

The Analytic form is found in all the tenses, and 
is always the same as the 3rd^pers. sing. 



21 

Tenses. 

Most of the tenses have the same force as in 
English. 

The Imperfect is sometimes called the Habitual, 
sometimes the Consuetudinal Past. It denotes con- 
tinuous or habitual action in the past. 

The Conditional (sometimes called the Second 
Future) corresponds to the tense with would or should 
in English, 

The Perfect is often called the Past tense. 

The Principal Parts of a Verb are — 

i. The 2nd Pers. Sing. Imperative, which is the 
stem of the verb. This stem is found in all the Tenses 

2. The i st. Pers. Sing. Fut., which distinguishes 
the Conjugations. 

3. The Past Participle, which determines whether 
c is aspirated in 2nd Sing. Imperfect, and in the 
Pres., Imperf., and Imperative of the Autonomous 
forms. 

4. The Verbal Noun from which the Compound 
tenses are formed. 

Note on following Tables of Verbs. 

Besides the forms mentioned in the following 
Tables there are also Relative, Negative, and Inter- 
rogative forms. 

The Relative form is peculiar to the Pres. and 
Fut. The Rel. Pres. is formed by adding Ap or e<vp ; 
the Rel. Fut. by adding j^p or pex\p to the stem of 
the verb. Rel. Pres. of 5LA11 is gt^n^p; Rel. Fut. is 
guxntMp. 

The Negative form consists in placing ni (aspira- 
ting) before the ordinary form. tlí gUtiAim. ílíop 
(aspirating) is placed before the Perfect. í1íof\ 
glAnAp. 



22 



The Interrogative form has An (eclipsing) before 
the ordinary form. A^ (aspirating) is placed before 
the Perfect. An n-gtAnAnn zv ? Af\ gtAn<Mf ? 

The Negative Interrogative form has n^ó 
(eclipsing) before the ordinary form. The Pref. 
takes nÁfi (aspirating). TU\c n-^tAnAinn? Y\S\\ gU\n 
fé? 

First Conjugation. 

^t^n^im, I clean. 



Indie. Pres. 
„ Imper. 
„ Per/. 
„ Put. 
Condi. 



5U\n-Aim 

5tAn-Aimi"o 

JtAn-Airm'f 

JlATI-Af 
^lAn-ATTIAf 

5iAn-fA-o 
glAn-pAimi-o 

gÍAtl-pAltltl 

^LAn-pAimíf 

Sfré/. (0//.) Pro. ^Ia-h-at) 

^lATi-Aimí-o 

„ „ Past. $t An -a. tin 
5"LAn-Aimif 

Imperative ^lAn-Aim 

jlAn-Aimif 

Verbal Noun — jlAn-A-o 



5lAn-Ai|t 
5lAti-Ann rib 

JtAn-uÁ 
5 1 An -ax) fib 

JiAn-Aif 
jlAn-AbAf 

5ÍAn-pAi|t 
^ÍAn-fAi-ó pb 

JtAn-pÁ 
^tAn-fA-ó fib 

^lAn-Aif 
^ÍAn-Aix) fib 

^ÍAn-rÁ 
3ÍAn-A-ó fib 

5tAn 

5ÍAT1-A1X) 



^lAn-Ann fé 
jtAn-Ai-o 

^lAn-A-ó fé 
JtAn-Ai-oíf 

5tAn f é 

5tAn-A"OAf 

^lAn-f A1X) fé 
jlAn-fAIT) 

JtAn-fA-ó fé 
^ÍAn-f Ai"oíf 

jlAn-Aii) fé 
5lAn-Ai-o 

^lAn-A-ó fé 
5tAn-Ai"oíf 

^ÍAn-A-ó fé 
jÍAn-Ai-oíf 



Participle — ^ÍAn-cA. 



Autonomous Forms. 



Imperf. 5LAn-u<\oi Perf. jtAn-A-ó 
Condl. slAn-fAróe 
Past 5tAn-uA0i 



Indie. Pres. 5lAn-uAf 

„ Fut. - sUn-fAf, 

Subi. {Opt.) Pres. ^lAn-cAf 

Imperative ^tAn-rAf 

Relative, Negative and Pnterrogative forms — see above and pre 
ceding page. 



23 



ceilim.SI conceal. 



r ndic. Pres. 


ceit-im 
ceit-imi"o 


ceiL-if 
ceil-eATin pb 


ceit-eAtin fé 
ceit-1-o 


„ Imperf. 


ceit-mn 
ceit-imif 


ceit-ueÁ 
ceit-eA-ó fib 


ceit-eAT) fé 
ceit-i"oíf 


n Per/- 


ceit-eAf 
ceil-eAtnAf 


ceit-if 
ceit-eAbAf 


ceil fé 
ceil-eA-oAf 


„ Put. 


ceil-feA"o 
ceit-firm'-o 


ceil-fif 
ceit-fi"ó fib 


ceit-fi"ó fé 
ceil-fix) 


„ Condi. ceil-firm 
ceil-funif 

Sitbj. (Opt.) Pres. ceit-eA-o 
ceit-imi*o 


ceil-feÁ 
ceit-f eA-ó fib 

ceit-if 
ceit-1-ó fib 


ceit-feA"ó fé 
ceit-fi"oíf 

ceit-1-ó fé 
ceit-i"o 


„ „ Past ceit-inn 
ceil-imif 


ceil-ceÁ 
ceit-eAX) fib 


ceit-eA"ó f é 
ceiti-x)íf 


Imperative 


ceit-im 

ceit-imif 


ceil 
ceit-ix) pb 


ceit-eAX) f é 
ceil-i"oíf 


Verbal Noun — ceitu 


Participlc- 


-ceilue 



Autonomous Forms. 
Indie. Pres. ceil-teA-p Impf. ceit-ci 



Perj. ceil-eA-6 
„ Fut. ceit-feAfi Condi. ceil-fi-óe 

Subj. (Opt.) Pres. ceit-ueAf Past ceit-ui 

Imperative ceit-ceAjt 

Relative, Negative and Interrogative Forms — see pages 21 and 22. 



Second Conjugation. 

méA*OUlgim, I increase, enlarge. 

All the tenses of verbs ending in tug and 15, 
except the Future and Conditional are inflected in 
the same way as the tenses of ceitim. 



Indie. Fut. 



meA-oocAt) 
méA*oócAimí"o 



me.e'oocAif 
méA-cócAix) fib 



meA-oocAi-o fe 
méA'oócAi'o 



Condi. 



meA-oocAinn meA"ooc«CA meA"oocA-o fe 

riiéA'oócAimíf TriéA"oócA-ó fib triéAX)ócAix)íf 

Autonomous Fut, — tnéA'oóctAfi Auton % Condi. — méA"oócí:Aoi 



2 4 

tMlUgim, I gather.í 

Indie. Fut. bóileócAT) OAiteócAift bAiteócAi"ó pé, &c. 

,, Condi. b*\iteócAinn bxMteóccÁ bAiteóc^-ó r-é, &c. 

Autonomous Fut. b&ileóci&\\ Anion. Condi. bAiteóccAoi 

Syncopated Vei-bs. 

ptl^nAim, I proclaim. 
Indie. Pres. like ^tAtiAnn Imperf. •o'fUAs-jiAirm, ■o'puAj-AjtcÁ, 

-O'f UA5|tAX) fé, &c. 

,, Pevf. ■o'puA^iiAf, -o'fUA^itAif, -o' fUA5Ai|\fé, &c. 

,, Fut. puA5|tócA-o, &z. Condl. t)'f«A\$^ócxMnn, ócca, 

ócxvó fe, &c. 

C015tim, I spare. 

Indie. Pros, like ceilim. Imperf. coi^tmn, coi5itueÁ, coigleA-ó fé,&c. 
Per/, coijte^f, coi^tif, coi^it fé, &c. 
„ Fut. coi5teóc<vo, &c. Condi. coigteócAitm, eócÚA, eócA-ófé, &c. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 

I.—ASSERTIVE VERB 1S. 

Independent Forms of is. 

Pres. — Affirmatively. Neg., ni, tiAc. Interrog., &r\,r)&c. 
Past — Affirmative, da, oa-ó, bux>. Neg. t nic b. 

Interrog., Afib, &\\; nÁfib, nÁji. 

Dependent Forms 
Pres. — Affirmative, 5«|tAb, ^uji. Neg. tiac 
Past ' „ 5«|rf>, 5 u r- Mg., "^» "^t 1 - 

Pres. Subj., sujiAb. Pas£ 5«&/., sujib. 

Note. — The form of the Conditional is usually the same as the 
form of the Past. The Future (bvró, Rel. bur-) is practically 
obsolete. 



25 



Indie. Pres. 
„ Imperf. 

„ Pert. 

,, Condi. 
Sub/. (Opt.) Pre. 

Imperative 

Vet 
Indie, Pres, Hub 



Irregular Verbs. 
II.— Cdim OCÁItn), I am 

UA1f (uAOl) 



cAim 

uÁirm'-o 

•oo binn 
•oo bímíf 
(•oo brown) 
(■oo bí-óirm'f) 

■oo biof 
■oo biomAf 
(■oo bí-óeAf ) 



■ck pb 

■oo h\ie& 

T)0 blOT) fib 

(•oo bíT)teÁ) 
(■oo bi-óeA-ó f 1b) 

t)o bíf 
-oo biobAf 

(•OO bÍT)íf ) 



(•oo bi-óeAiriAji) ("oo bi*óeAbAjO 

beA-o 
beitni-o 



bent 



(beix)eAT>) 
(beromro) 

•oo beinn 
■oo beimif 

S. ]1AbA"0 

jiAbAimi-o 

binn 
bímíf 

bím 
bírníf 

£&/ Now» 

it, bím 
bímí-o 

(biT)im) 
(bvórwo) 



beix> fib 

(bei"óif ) 
(beití) 

beiúeÁ 

•oo beA-ó fib 

flAbAlf 

|iAib rib 

bíúeÁ 
bíox; fib 

bí 
bí-óí-ó 

-beít Participle — 

bíf 

bíorm fib 
(bi"óin) 
(bi-óeAnn fib) 

Dependent Forms. 



be 



Indie. Pres. 
» ^#/. 



fuitirn 
j?uitmi , o 

f AbAf 

nAbAmAj', 



fVHtljl 

pwit fib 

f ADA1f 
f AbAbAf 



ca fe 

CA1"0 

•oo blOT) f é 

•oo bí-oíf 

(■oo bí-óeA-ó fé) 

(-00 bí-ÓlTííf) 

x>o bí fé 

•OO bío-OAf 

(•oo bí f é) 
(•oo bi-oeA^of) 

bei-ó fé 
bero 
(beró fé) 
(bei*ói*o) 

•oo beA-ó f e 
-oo bei-oíf 

jiAib fé 

f AbA1T) 

bío-ó fé 
bít)íf 

bíox> fé 
bí-oíf 

•ore 

bíorm fé 
bí*o 

(bi-óe-dnn ftV) 
(bi*ói , o) 



-ptaib fé 

fUltl"0 

íiAib f é 

f AbATDAf 



Autonomous (sometimes called Passive) Forms. 
Indie. Pres. uÁtAf Imperf. bící Per/, bite^f 

,, Put. beifeAf (beiteAft) Condi. beip-óe (beití) 
Imperative bíreAf Subj. (Opt. 50 f AbtAf and §0 ni-bireAf 

Autonomous Dependent Forms : — Indie Pres. f-mtueAf . Per/. -^AbtAf 
,, Form of Iv-die* Pres. Habitual — btceAj< 



26 

Irregular Verbs. 







ill. — bemim, 


I bear, carry, &c. 




Indie ■ Pres. 




bei|tim 

bei-[iimi-o 


beijtif 
beiftúí 


(beiji fé) 

beifieArm r-é 
beitii*o 


, , Imperj 




bei-pinn 
bei|innif 


bei-|iúeÁ 
beif>eA"ó fib 


beijieAT> f é 
beijii'oir- 


„ Per/. 






■fttí^Alf 

-pt]5;AbA-}i 


tm5AT)At1 


>, ***- 




béA|( -pjAT) 
béA|i(f)Aimíx) 


béAt<r)Ai]i 
béAji(-p)Aix) nb 


béA|t(f?)Aix) fé 

béAft(f)AIT) 


,, Co«rf/ 




béAriíf)Ainn 

béA1'>(p)Aimíf 


béAfi-pÁ 

béAjl(c)AIT) fib 


béA|l(-p)AT) fé 
béA]l(f > )A1T)íf 


Sw&/. (Of/J 


Pres. 


bei-jteA*o 
beiftitrfo 


beifn-p 
bei]ii*é fib 


bei*íii"D fé 
bei|ii-o 


J5 »1 


Past 


bei|tinti 

bei-jumir- 


beijiúeÁ 
beifieA-ó fib 


beijteAT) fé 
bei|ti"oíf 


Imperative 




beitiim 
beijnmif 


beif 
beifii-ó 


beifieAT) fé 
bei|iiT>íf 


Antonumous- 


-Prei 


>. bei|tteA|t 


Imperfect, beifiií 


P*r/. riuSA'ó 




Fin 


'. béAjifAjt 


Condi. béAjif^ 


M-óe 


Subj. 


Prei 


». bei-pteAti 


Past beifiri 





IV. — (T)0) CÍm, I see. 



Lndic 


. Pres. 


cim (croirr) 


C1|l 


cionn fe 






címí-o 


cíorm fib (cítí) 


cí*o 


n 


Imperj. 


círm (cí"ómn) 


cíúeÁ 


CÍOT) fé 






círnír- 


CÍO'Ó fib 


CVOÍf 


»5 


Per/. « 


!:otinA(-|i)cAf(connAc 


:) connACAir 


C01111A1C fé 






connACAmAjt 


connACAbAf 


COnnACAT)A|t 


n 


Fut, 


cípeA-o 


cípifi 


cíp-ó fé 






cífimí-o 


cí-pi'ó f ib 


ÓífMT) 


n 


Condi. 


crpinri 


cí-peÁ 


cíf eA-ó f é 






cí-pimíf 


cípeA-ó fib 


CÍpiT)tf 


Sh#, 


, Pres. 


■peiceAT) 


peicifi 


peictxi fé 






peicimíx) 


■peiciT) f ib 


feici"o 


»J 


Past 


peicir,ti 


■peicteÁ 


-peiceA-ó fé 






f eicimíf 


peiceAT) f ib 


peici*oíp 



27 

("00) Cím — Continued. 

Imperative feicnn feic peiceAT) pé 

peicimíf feicix) -peici"oif 

Verb. Noun peicftni; Participle peicte 

The form peic (2nd Sing. Imper.) is never used. -péAc or penc 
(a distinct verb) is used instead. 

Dependent Forms. 



Indie. Pres. 


£eiciin 

■peicunix) 




feicif 
peiceAnn fib 


-peiceAnn re 
-peici-o 


,, Imper f. 


j?eicmn 
feicimip 




-peicúeÁ 
feiceA*ó pib 


reiceAT) ré 
pecmíp 


,, Perf. 


p(e)ACAp(fe.>c 

fACA1TIA|\ 


u\) 


f ACA1f 
f ACAbAf 


f aca ré 

fACA-OA-fl 


„ Fut. 


feic^eA-o 
peic-pnnro 




peicpft 
peicpiT) fib 


-peicfiT) pé 
feicfix) 


„ Condi. 


-peicpinn 
f eicyimif 




peicpeÁ 
peicpeAX) fib 


peicfeAT) ré 
reicpiT)íp 




Autonomous 


Independent Forms. 


Indie. Pres. 


éíceA-ji 


Iiuperf. cítí 


Perf. conncAr 



Fut. cifeAf Condi. cípi"óe 

Autonomous Dependent Forms. 
Indie. Pres. reicteA-M hnperf. reicti Perf. rACAf (rACÚAf) 
Fut. -peicpeAji Condi. reicri"óe 

v.— (x)o) ttemim (cu^im), I give. 



Indie 


, Pres. 


beifim 
beijumi-o 


beifif 
beifti 




beiji ré 
beifix) 


t » 


Imp erf. 


beip inn 
beipimir 


beijiteÁ 
bei-fití 




beifeAT) ré 
beijnT)ír 


> t 


Perf. 


ún^Af 


tu^Aip 




tuSV é 


<> 


Fut. 


c-u^ArnAji 

bOAjIfAT) 

béAjtfAimÍT) 


tngAbAft 
béA|ifAi|i 
beAfifAix: 


1 fib 


tn^A-OAf 

béAf-pAi-ó ré 

béAjlf A1"0 


" 


Condi. 


béAjif Ainn 
béAff Aimír 


béA-jifÁ 

béAff AT) 


rib 


bÓAf f AT) ré 
bÓA|1fAlT)íf 


Snhj . 


(Opt) Pres. 


TAbjIAT) (UU^AT] 

CAbfAimi-o 


i)CAbftA1Jl 
UAb|tA1X) 


rib 


uAbjiAiT) ré 

UAbjlAIT) 




Past 


uAbf Ainn 


UAbAfÚA 




UAbfAT) f é, &C 



2% 



Imperative 

Verbal Noun 

Indie. Pres. 

,, Imperf. 

,.. Per/. 
,, Fut. 

., Condi 



Indie. Fret 

„ Fut. 



ndic, Fret 
.. Fut 



Coo) fcemnn (€11541™)— Cowft??^. 

CAbftAim <CAbAni u-áb-ftA-ó or 

[uu^a-d fé 

UAbfAlinif ~AbfA1T> CAbfA1"OÍf 

(UtlJAimíf) (CUJAITMf) 

UAbAifc Participle, uAbAfÚA, U115ÚA 

Dependent Forms 

CU5AITT1 (uAb|tAim) uti^Aiji ctiTyATin fé 

c«5Aimí"o ^ugAfin fib ru^Ai-o 

cugAitw (uAbf A<rm) zvt^tÁ uu^ax) fé 

uurAimíf rugA-ó fib cvigAi-oíf 

Same as Independent Perfect, ciijAf , &c. 

uiubj\AtD (uAbAiif a-o) umbfAif uiubtiAi-ófé 
citib|tAimíx> ~iubfAi"ó fib ci«bfAi"o 

nvibfAintT (cdbAff Ainn x ) nubAfrÁ rmbfA-ó fé 
ntibf Aimíf rmbfAX) fib ciut>f Ai*oif 

Autonomous Independent Forms. 

beifteAf Imperf, beifúí Per/, uuja-o 

béAffAf Condi. béAf f aoi (béAff Aix>e) 

Autonomous Dependent Forms. 
rAbAfÚAjt (rnjrAf } Imperf r AbAf úaoi Pet/, cu^a-ó 
nubAftAf Condi. nubAfÚAOi (cAbAf fai-óe) 



VI.— *oemnn, I say. 











(x)eifeAtin fé) 


Indie 


. Pres. 


■oeifini 


■oeifttfi 


■oeif fé 






t>eifimi-o 


■oeiftí 


-oeijn-o 


55 


Imperf. 


•oeif inn 


■oeifteÁ 


•oei peA*ó f é 






■oeifimif 


-oenieA-ó fib 


■oeif i-oíf 


n 


Per/. 


■oubf Af (-oub 
x)tibf AtriAf 


Afc) -oubitAip 

■QUbf ADAjl 


TOVlbAlfC fé 

X)tlbp.A-OAf 


j? 


Fut. 


■DÓAff A"0 

-oéAffAirm-o 


X)éAf VAlf 
T)éAf fAI-Ó f ib 


-0éAf fAIX) f é 
•oéAffAlX) 


>j 


Condi. 


•oéAffAmti 
•oéAff Aimír 


"OéAffÁ 
"OéAff A"Ó flb 


■DéA|tfA"Ó fé 

"oéAffAixn'f 


Sub] 


{Opt.) Pres. 


Abf AT) 

^bf<Mrní-o 


Abf.Alf, 

Abf ai*ó fib 


A.bf A1-Ó f é 

,\bf A1T) 


s> 


„ Past 


Abf Am n 

(T>eifinn) 

AbfAimíf 


AbAfCÁ 

(■oeifteÁ) 

Abf At) fib 


AbriAX) fé 
(■oeifeA-ó fé) 

Abf A1*OÍf 



2Q 



*0emi m — Continued. 
Imperative Abf Ann AbAip AbfA-ó pé 

AbfWAimíf AbfAUÓ Ab"|iA1-OÍf 

Verbal Noun — fÁT> Participle — fiÁiT>ue 

Dependent Forms. 
Indie, Pres. AbfAim Abjiáift AbfAnn re 

AbfAITnÍT) AbA1|ltAÍ AbjtAiT) 

,, Imperf. Abf Ainn AbA-ptÁ AbfA*ó pé 

Abp. Airníp Abf a-ó pb AbfAuoíf 

,, Pert. Same as Independent Perfect — xrnbfAf , Sec. 

,, Fut. Ab}\ÓCAT) ,\bf í'CAIf Ab-|1ÓCA1"Ó fé 

Ab-fiócAimí-o AbjióÓAi-ó pib AbfóÓAi-o 

„ Condi. Ab|tócAinn AbftóctÁ AbjtoCA-ó pé 

AbjlÓCAimíf AbfOCAT) flb AbfÓCAlT)íp 

Autonomous Independent Forms. 
Indie. Pres. -oeiftceAji Imperf, x>e^ prci Per/. -ovfófA-ó 

Flit. T)éAfVpAft (-flt-Aft) Condi. 'oéAjtjMOI (-CAOl) (oubAjltAf) 

Autonomous Dependent Forms, 
/r/tf?'r. Pm. AbAntAj'. Imperf. AbAftAOi 

,, Fat. Ab|tóct\;i Condi. AbftóccAoi 



Indie. Pres. 

„ /»M/ 
„ P«/. 

,, Fut. 

, Condi. 
Suhj. Pres. 
„ Pasi 
Imperative 



VII.— 5-dt^dim, I take. 

jAbAim 
gAbAimru 



3AbAinn 
JAbAimif 

^AbAmAft 

^eobAX) 
reobAimi-o 

teoboxifin 
teooAimip 

5AbA13 
^AbAliniÍD 



gAbAinti 
jAbAimif 

5AbAim 

jAbAnrip 

Verbal Noun — ^AbÁil (r 
A ntonomous- Pres. <^brA|t 
Fut. ^eobtA^ 



3A0A1J1 
^AbAiru rib 

^AbtÁ 
tAbdX> rib 

ja'óai p 

5AbAbA|t 

geobAift 

$eobAi-ó pib 

^eobtÁ 
JeobA-ó pib 

$AbAlf1 
JAbAUÓ fib 

JAbtÁ 

5AbAX) fib 
S Ab 

^,AbA1X) 



^AbAnti fé 

5AbAlX) 

JADA-Ó f é 
JAbAI-OÍf 

5Ab f é 

JAbA-OAf 

^eobAi-ó f é 
jeobAi-o 

JeobdX) f é 
jeobAiisif 

5AbAix> pé 

JAbA1-D 

^AbA-ó x é 

5AbA1T)íf 

^AbAX) f é 

5AbA1-0Íf 



Participle — 5 Ab t a 
Imperf. ^AbtAOi Ptff/. ^AbA-ó 

Condi. ^eobcAoi 



30 
Irregular Verbs. 

VIII.— (T)0) $rnm, I make, do. 



Indie. Pres. 


5T1ÍÍTI 

jnímí-o 


5™> 

511 ití 


§ní r é 
§nro 


, , Imp erf. 


jtiítin 

jnírnír 


gníteÁ 
Jnío-ó pit) 


Jníox) fé 

^Tlí-OÍf 


„ Perf. 


fiinneAf (*óeineAf) ftinmf 
|AinneAmA^ ftinneAtÍAfi 


-pinne -pé 
HinneA"OA^ 


„ F«*. 


'oéAnfAT) 
"oéAn-pAimí-o 


t)éAni?Aiti 

oéAnpAi-ó pb 


*oéAn^Ai"ó f é 

T)éAn]:Ai"0 


Ccwí?/. 


■óéAtipAinn 


"óéAti-pÁ 


-óéAnf A"ó -pé 




■óeAn-p Airmp 


•ÓéAtlf AT) "fit) 


"óéAnpAi'OÍf 


Sȣ/. ((#*.) Pw, 


•oéAUA-o 
-oeAnAirní-o 


•oéAtlAlfl 

■oéAriAiT) -pio 


•oeATlAlX) fé 
•oéAtlAIT) 


„ PtfSÍ 


•oéAiiAirm 


•oéAnuÁ 


t3éAtlA*C ré 




■oéAriAimíp 


TDéAnAX) fib 


X)éAnAix)íf 


Imperative 


•oédnAmi 
•oéAtiAimíf 


■oéAii 

•oc-AriAix) 


•oéAHAX) f é 
X)éAtlA1X)íf 


Verbal Noun — -oéAffArh 


Participle — -o 


éAncA 



Dependent Forms, 



■oeAtiAnri ye 
■oéAHAi'o 



Indic. Pres. -céAnAim -oéAriAifi 

■oéAnAimí"o -oéArAnn -pib 

,, Imperf. -oéATiAirm, &c, as in Suhj. (Opt.) Past. 

,, Perf. -oeA-jniAf (-oeineAr) -oe-A-jnuAif -oeA-f-ittA -pé 

•oeA|ir!AmAti -oeA-priAliuxfi -oeA-jinA-oAft 

,, Fut. Same as Future Independent, -oéAn-pA-o, Sec. 

,, Condi. „ Conditional ,, -oéAnfAm-n, &c. 



Antonomous Independent Forms. 

Indic Pres. Jnit/eAji Imperf, ^nítí Perf. -sunneA-o (-cemeAX)) 

Fut-, "oeAnfA-ji Ccndl. ■oéAnpAí'óe 



Anotonomous Dependent Forms. 

Indie. Pres. -oéAnrAjt Imperf. -oéAnuAoi Perf -oeAjinAT> 

Fut -oeAnpAji Condi. ■oéAHfAi'óe 



3* 

irregular Verbs. 

IX.— (T)0)5ei£mn, or JMgxMtn, I get, find. 



Indie, Pres. 


jeibim 
jeibmi-o 


Jeibti 


(geifc r é) 
JeibeAtin fé 
i;eibiT> 


„ Imp erf. 


Jeibirm 
geibimif 


i;eibúeÁ 
jeibeAT) fib 


geibeAT) fé 
5eibix)if 


„ Perf. 


fUAJlAf 

ptiAfAtnAf 


pt3A|1Aip 
pUAf AbAf 


fWAif fé 

pi3A|tA*OA-jl 


„ Fitt. 


^eobAt) 
5eobAimi"o 


jeobAiji 
jeobAix) fib 


geobAi-o fé 
jeobAi-o 


„ Condi. 


reobAum 
jeobAirm'p 


JeobúÁ 
geobA-ó fib 


^eobA-ó fé 
5eobAix)íf 


Sub/. (Opt.) Pres. 


f-A^AimÍT) 


VA3A1J1 

f aJait) pb 


f A^AiT) fé 

fA^AIT) 


„ „ PífSÍ 


pAgAinn 

p AJAimip 


FaJat) fib 


f AJAT) f é 
fA^A-TOÍf 


Imperative 


fAgAiin 

pAJAHTlíf 


F A 5 

fAJAIT) 


f A^AT) f é 
pAJjAI-OÍf 


Verbal No 


»«— ■ FAjÁit (p. 


^JAit) Participle — pAi;cA 




Dependent Forms. 


, 


IndU. Pres. 


pAJAim 
pAJAnnro 


FAJAIjl 

pA^Anr» fib 


fA^Ann fé 
f A§A1X) 


,, Imp erf. 


pA^Airm 
pAÍjAirníp 


fAJtÁ 
pA^AT) f lb 


f a$a-ó f é 

pAÍjA1T)íf 


„ Pw/ 


Same as Ind 


ependent perfect- 


-f 11 Af Af , &C. 


„ F?tf. 


■puijeAT) 
ptnjrm'-o 


PU15111 
puiji-ó fib 


f UI5IX) f é 

puigro 


,, Condi. 


pu 151 tin 
ptnjpmif 


pvnjteÁ 
ptn^eAT) fib 


ptngeA-ó fé 

fttljl-OÍf 



Autonomous Independent Forms 

/ftfe Pres. jeibteAf Imperf. jeibti Pn'/. p uAfA-ó, f uAfiÚAp, f f 10c 
„ Fíí/. tjeobÚAf Condi. geobtAoí 

Autonomous Dependent Forms. 

Indie. Pres, p AJtAjt Imperf. pajcaoi Perf. ptiAfAT), puAf rAf , pf iot 
,, Fíí/. pvngteAf. Condi % ptnjti 



32 

Irregular Verbs. 

X— céi-óim, l go. 



Indie. Pres 


céni)im 


réix>iji 




céiT>eAmi ré 




réiT)íní"o 


cérótí 




céi-01-o 


„ Imp erf. 


céi-óitm 


céix>ceÁ 




réi-óoA*D pé 




céiT>míf 


téi"ótí 




réi"ó"oíf 


„ Per/. 


Ct»A*CAf 

Ct3AT)AmAj1 


Ct3A-CA1f 
CUAT>AO<Nf. 


étjAi-ó fé 

Ct3A-ÓAT)A-}1 


,, Fut. 


jlAJAt) (CA"0) 
ftA^AimÍT) 


flA^lf 

ttAjAi-6 r 


■ b 


f aJai-ó fé 


,, Condi. 


|i >tAirm (c) 
-j-iA^Airníf 


flASCÁ 

f.AJAT) p 


ift 


ftAJA"*) pé 

fAJAI-DÍr 


Subj. Pies. 


céi-óeA-o 


célTMjl 




cénó fé 




céi-ótni-o 


réi-óix) 




céiT>iT» 


„ Past 


céix>inn 


céi-óceÁ 




rói-óeA-ó pé 


Imperative 


céi'ómíf 

uéi'óim 
céi-órníf 


céi-órí 

céi*ó 

céi'ótx) 




céi*oíf 
céi"óeA"ó pé 
uéiw'oíf 


Verb. Noun 


•out 








A utonomous — Pres 


céróteAf 


Imperf, 


céi-ócí 




Per) 


f . CUACAf 


Condl. 


JIAtCAI'Óe, f AéfAi-óe, &c. 



Pas^ Stf£/. 0/>/í. — Same as Imperf. c is us id instead of 5 in the 
future and conditional in some places, as ftACA*o,ffor -jiajja-o, &c. 



XI.— dgmi, I come. 



Indie. Pres 


C151WÍ, 

ci 51m ÍT) 


C15ÍH 

C15CÍ 


ri5(eAnn) f e 
C151T) 


Imperf. 


ci^inn 
ci^imif 


ci^ceÁ 
C13CÍ 


cijeAX) f é 
tigi-oif 


Per). 


cAn^Af (has) 
cÁn5AtnAfi 


cÁnjAif 
rÁr-5ADA|t 


CÁIÍH5 fé 
cÁn5A"OAf. 


Fut, 


cioc-pAt) 
ciocpnr.í'o 


ClOCf A1f 
C10Cp<M"Ó fib 


ciocfAró fé 

CIOCfAIX) 


Condi. 


ciocfAirm 
'úiocp&imír- 


CIOCfÁ 
CICCfAC) fib 


CIOCpAX) fé 
Cl0CfA1T)íp 


Subj. Pres. 


ci^eA-o 
cigimfo 


ci 5 if 

C15C1 


ci vró fé 
C151X) 


Past 


cijjinn 

cijimif 


n 5 reÁ 
C15CÍ 


ngeAT) f é 

C1 5 lT>ir 



33 

CI^Wl— Continued. 

Imperative cigim cij (uA-p) r^eA-ó ré 

uigirníf U151T) (uaj;ait>) ci5iT)íf 

Verb. Noun oeAcu (tjtjje&cc) 

Autonomous — Pn's. msúeAji, cajúaji. Imperf. cigtí 

Pi?/. -cÁnrrAr. Fa*. ciocpAfi Condi. nocFAi-óe 
CAgAim can be used for 1:151m in this Table. 

XII.— cloismi. or cltnnim, I hear. 

These verbs are conjugated regularly except in the Perfect 
Tense. 

Indie. Per/, ciiAl^r (cuaIa), cuAÍAif, cuaLai-q fé (cuaía), c-uaI- 

AmA|\, &c. 
Verbal Noun — clop or cloipinc Autonomous — cxiAt<xt<j.r 

XIII.— ltim, I eat. 
All the Tenses are regular, except future and Conditional. 
Indie, Fut. ior-AT) (iorfA*o) ior aiji íorAix> ré 

ÍOfAimÍT) ÍOfAIT) pit) ÍOfA1T> 

,, Condi. íofAinn (íorfAinn) íoptÁ íofA-ó fé 

ÍAfAnníf íofA-ó r ib íorAi"oír 

Besides Perject Tense, -o'ireAf, there is another: -ouA-ÓAr, &c, 
"OUA1T) fé, &c. 

XIV.— mgim, I reach. 

This verb is Defective and nearly obsolete. The Perfect is 
irregular. 

Indie, Per/. — fiÁnjAp (-pÁriAg), .fiÁu^Aip, jtÁirii5 pé- jtAtigAftiAfi, Sec, 
Verbal Noun — puACtAin or jiocuAin. 

Defective Verbs. 

I. -Afi (-Apf' &VT&)' cavs > said. >A-jifA mvpe, said I (used when 
quoting the very words of the speaker). 

II. T)A|i, it seems, it seemed. *Oaji liom, it seems to me. 

III. T)'£ óbAi-p, it was on the point of happening. *0'póbAi|i -oom' 
cApAll- uuinm, my horse nearly fell (it was on the point of 
happening to my horse to fall). 

IV. -peA-OAfi, I know (used negatively and interrogatively), ni 
f eAx>A|t, I do net know. 

V. ÚÁ|iía, it happened, came to pass. 



34 



ADVERBS. 



A1T)AC, out 

Amu 15 (c), outside 

Ám, Am ac, ^_ though 

ÁmuAc, ) however 

Am Ám, only, alone 

AmtAiT), thus, so 

Atiocu, to-night 

A|téi|i, last night 

Auoif , now 

Afif(c), again 

a 5-cém (1 5-cem), far away 

A b-f At) (1 b-f At)) ,, „ 

a t)-uofAC (1 -o-uofAc), at first 
a 5-céAt)ói|i (1 3-céAt)óitt) „ „ 
a 5-comnui-6e (1 5-comnai-óe), 

always 
AntifAti (Annroin), there, then 
Atinro, here 
Annfút», there, yonder 
Ai|i Aif, back 

Aji bAtt, instantly, by and by 
Aft t>uúif , at first 
Af bit, \ 

Af Aon cof , > at all 
1 n-Aon cof ,) 
Af 6151 n, with difficulty 
Af 5CÚI, backward 
Af teit, apart 
Af mót), in a manner 
Aft uAjtAib, sometimes 
Anoif if Ajiif , now and then 
An Áifoe, on high 
a nÁifoe(i n-Áifoe), on high 
Atroé (iut)é), yesterday 
Aníof, up from below 
AnuAf , down from above 
At>uuAit), from the North 
AtroeAf , from the South 
Anoift, from the East 
AtiiA-fi, from the West 
AnAlt, to this side, hither 
Anorm, to that side, thither 
a n-jAf (1 i>5Aft), near 
a n-t»iu (int)iu), to-day 
An rAn, when 
AfiiAm, ever (past) 
a coit)6e, ever (future) 



- at most 



at» cuit) if mó t)e,) 

Af A 10mAt), ) 

<\r\ cuit> if lujjA -oe, > , 

Af A ÍA5A-0, > a[ lea3L 

a]( a fon pAn ip uite, notwith- 
standing all that 

Atfu^Ao nroé, the day before 
yesterday 

AtfujjAt) 1 mbÁjtAC, íhe day 
after to-morrow 

1Á Att nA 5Áf ac, next day 

Anu-fv:.it), last year 

AÚ|tu5A*ó AnujiAit), the year be- 
fore last 

An-Altót), formerly, of yore 

beA$ UAC,) 

uac móf , >■ almost 

^eAÍt lej 

CAÚAin ? when ? 

ca fom ? ,, 

ceAnA, already 

cionnuf ? how ? 

com, com, as 

CÁ h *r>\ W hence 

CAt) Af , ) 

cÁ méit) ? cé meut) ? how many ? 

how much 
CAt) nA t^ob ? i 

why ? 



cAt> cuije ? 



CAt) pat: 
cé An f Át 



) 



cor An Áijroe, at full gal ? op 

com j?ax)a if, whilst 

con te fir, moreover 

•oÁ fitnb, really, in earnest 

t>Áf n-0013 (c), sure, surely 

■00 fiof , always 

-oe Jeir, suddenly 

Af An -ocoifT:, instantly 

t>'oit)ce, ip:' oit>ce, by night 

■oe UtAif , presently 

t>iAit) Af iroiAro, consecutively 

eA-óon, .i., that is 

ffeirm (fceif), also too 

fui, even ; for, yet 

f Á x')ó, twice 

f Á feAC, by turns 



35 



especially 



-Continued. 

1 n-émfeAcc, together 
(te céite) „ 

1 mbtiAT)nA, this year 
mAfi &r\ %cé&T)Y)A, likewise 
mAft fin, thus 

rnAfi AUA (auÁ1T>), l/i*., Í.& 

Of ciorm, above 

ó ciAnAib, while a 5 o 

ó ctAnuAib, ages ago 

ó (r>A.) céite, asunder 

ó fom, since 

ó f oin i tetú, from that till now 

ó fom Am ac, from that out 

of if tot, secretly, silently 

óf Áfro, aloud, openly 

óf corn ai ft, before, opposite 

pé furo é, \ however 

pé fcéAl é ) at any rate 

cAtriAtt, awhile 

íaII, on the other side 

cuitte eite, besides, moreover 

«m tfÁtnótiA, in the evening 

PREPOSITIONS. 

Most of the simple prepositions are already given with the 
prepositional pronouns (page [9). 



Adverbs 

fé tuAifnm, towards, conjee 

turally 
f at) ó (foin), long ago 

F4 * eó ™' . 1 at length 
f a x)eifieAT),) 

50 x>eó, 50 bfÁr;(Ac), forever 

5:0 téifi, 50 hiorntÁn, entirely 

50 moc, early 

30 h-Átftijte, , 

50 f onfA-ÓAC, 

50 mófitriófi, 

50 h-tiftrho-ji, } 

50 teójt, enough 

50 h-AnnAiri, seldom 

50 mime, often 

50 f ott, awhile, yet 

50 x)eirriin, ) indeed 

50 -oeAf bt<\, j" truly 

1 -ocAifge, in safe keeping 

1 tÁtAifi , present 

Af iÁÚAifi, absent 



Aft A5A1T), opposite 

Aft béAÍAib, in front of 

Afi cut, behind 

Aft feAX), during 

Aft fúx> (púio), through, amo 

A f r° n '| for the sake of 

Af UCU,) 

■oAfi, by (in swearing) 

■oáIa (-oáIca), concerning 

■00 curn, towards 

do fiéifi > according to 

5An, without 

50, to 

1 b-fA-fftA-ó, along with 

1 b-f ocAtft, together with 

1 -o-ceAnncA, together with 

mAft Aon te, together with 

1 b-fiA-ónAife, in presence of 

1 -o-CAob, regarding. 

(at the head of 
1 3-ceAnn, | at the end J f 



ng 



1 5-ctiftfAix)e, concerning. 

1 meAfj, amongst. 

1 n-AJAix), against 

1 n-*oiAiT), after (of place) 

1 n-éAT>An, against. 

1 n-AinTÓeoin,;_in spite of 

1 n-Aice, near 

U.1V1 te, < beside 

te coif, ( 

te h-A^Aix), for the use of 

te h-edfbA, for want of 

mAft, like 

mAfi jeAtt Aft, on account of 

óf cionn, over, above 

óf corhAtft, in presence of 

óf comne, before, opposite. 

uAob te, beside 

ufti-o, through 

c-f AfnA (c-fteAftiA), across 

tAfi éif, after (of time) 



36 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



-act, but , 4cr ceAtiA, but how- 
ever 
Ajuf, A'f, Af, if, r, and 

bio-o 30, although 

C1-Ó, 51-0, 51-óeA-ó, although 

■OÁ, 11 

corn liiAt ^f, as soon as 

^óf , yet, moreover, still 

•oe of 15 50, because, by reason 

of 
50, no 50, gtif, that., until 
ionÁ, inÁ, 'nÁ, than 
lontif 50, so that, in order that 
ix)ifi . . . A^vjf, both . . . and 
m-Aji, as 
pÁ m<N|i, according as 



mA|i piti pern, even so 
mÁ (oÁ), if 
muriA, mAjtA, unless 
triAif eA-ó, if so, well tken 
nAé, that not 
nó, or 

0, since: ói|t f because 
ó cÁjttA 50, whereas 
ful (fA|tA) before 
uime fin, therefore 
1 tjjteó, Af nóf. 1 
Af riio^, 1 SCAf, f 
Ajl COf, 1 5CAOÍ, j & 

Af "OOlj, lOTlTlttf, J 

so that (not) 



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